Supporting the resilience of healthcare workers in the Gulf Cooperation Council countries: An integrative review

Noura Hammad Farraj, Ameneh Toosi, Aisha Al Qahtani, Daniel Forgrave, Sumayya Ansar


Background: A wide range of evidence has shown that there is a crisis in the mental health of healthcare workers (HCWs) due to the nature of their work. Resilience has been recognized as an essential component in supporting mental health. No synthesized literature concretely defines the concept of resilience or outlines the factors that affect the resilience of HCWs in the Gulf Cooperation Countries (GCC).

Aim: To explore the definition of resilience and to provide a synthesis of the factors that affect the resilience of HCWs in the GCC.

Method: Whittemore and Knafl’s framework guided this integrative review. Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health (CINHAL), Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System (MEDLINE), and Excerpta Medica Database (Embase) were searched systematically for peer-reviewed primary studies published between 2011 and 2022. Considering inclusion and exclusion criteria, a total of nine articles were included. The Mixed-Methods Appraisal Tool (MMAT) was used to assess the quality of the studies. The socio-ecological model was used for data extraction, analysis, and presentation of findings.

Results: The definition of resilience varies across the included studies. The factors that affect the resilience of HCWs fall within three main themes: intrapersonal factors (individual characteristics and internal influences), interpersonal factors (teamwork and camaraderie), and organizational factors (work setting, availability of resources, shift length, and leadership style).

Conclusions: The resilience of HCWs can be affected by multiple factors. As a result, the interventions targeting the improvement of resilience should be multi-dimensional. Organizational policies should be developed in a way that supports a culture that fosters the resilience of HCWs in the GCC.

Full Text:




  • There are currently no refbacks.

International Journal of Healthcare  ISSN 2377-7338(Print)  ISSN 2377-7346(Online)

Copyright © Sciedu Press

To make sure that you can receive messages from us, please add the '' and ‘’ domains to your e-mail 'safe list'. If you do not receive e-mail in your 'inbox', please check your 'spam' or 'junk' folder.