Association between Field Liming and the Epidemic of Type 1 Diabetes

Seppo K Junnila


Zinc is an essential nutrient for mammals. Zinc has only one oxidation state Zn2+ but it has many coordination states, which can alter without demanding energy. Coordination states depend on prevailing pH. In soils the coordination state changes from octahedral (nonphysiologic) form to tetrahedral (physiologic) form when pH rises to about 6.5. Weathering processes of common soil mineral mica are also pH dependent. Large scale argricultural field liming began from 1950's onward in the Western Countries and since that time the incidence of T1D began to increase in the Western Countries. Liming elevates soil pH often near 6.5 and favours mosaic mica-vermiculite nanoparticle formation in which vermiculite corner binds zinc in tetrahedral (physiological) coordination state. In this pH mica corner remains in native form and offers the plane for soluble pMHC  molecule (binded with antigenic beta-cell specific self peptide) to adhere on mica and as a  consequence to trigger the activation of autoreactive CD4 and/or CD8 T cells. Beta-cell specific autoantigens are released  because abundant zinc derived from endocytosed zinc-mica-vermiculite particles in lysosomes leads to incresed beta-cell apoptosis, also the physiological neonatal beta-cell mass remodeling enhance beta-cell specific auto-antigen release. Furthermore enterovirusinfections during first years of life are common and can release beta-cell specific auto-antigens.  The probable disease mechanism is dealt with this review article.

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Journal of Epidemiological Research

ISSN 2377-9306(Print)  ISSN 2377-9330(Online)

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